மனப்பிறழ்வுகள் ஏற்படுவதற்கு சிறு பராயத்தில் ஏற்படும் நிகழ்வுகளும் ஒரு காரணம். பல வகையான மனப்பிறழ்வுகள் WHO இனால் அடையாளம் காணப்பட்டுள்ளன.
Most Common Mental Health Disorders
There are many different types of mental disorders, with different presentations. They are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behaviour and relationships with others.
Today there are many effective strategies for preventing, treating and alleviating the suffering caused by most types of mental disorders.
Treatment with medicines and psychosocial support is effective. With appropriate treatment and social support, most affected people can lead a productive life and be integrated in their communities and society.
A common disorder. It typically consists of both manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood. Manic episodes involve elevated or irritable mood, over-activity, rapid speech, inflated self-esteem and a decreased need for sleep. People who have manic attacks but do not experience depressive episodes are also classified as having bipolar disorder.
Schizophrenia and other psychoses
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder. Psychoses, including schizophrenia, are characterized by distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, language, sense of self and behaviour. Common psychotic experiences include hallucinations (hearing, seeing or feeling things that are not there) and delusions (fixed false beliefs or suspicions that are firmly held even when there is evidence to the contrary). The disorder can make it difficult for people affected to work or study normally.
Schizophrenia typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood.
Schizophrenia is treatable. Treatment with medicines and psychosocial support is effective.
Developmental disorders, including autism
Developmental disorder is an umbrella term covering intellectual disability and pervasive developmental disorders including autism. Developmental disorders usually have a childhood onset but tend to persist into adulthood, causing impairment or delay in functions related to the central nervous system maturation. They generally follow a steady course rather than the periods of remissions and relapses that characterize many mental disorders.
Intellectual disability is characterized by impairment of skills across multiple developmental areas such as cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviour. Lower intelligence diminishes the ability to adapt to the daily demands of life.
Symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism, include impaired social behaviour, communication and language, and a narrow range of interests and activities that are both unique to the individual and are carried out repetitively. Developmental disorders often originate in infancy or early childhood. People with these disorders occasionally display some degree of intellectual disability.
Who is at risk from mental disorders?
Determinants of mental health and mental disorders include not only individual attributes such as the ability to manage one’s thoughts, emotions, behaviours and interactions with others, but also social, cultural, economic, political and environmental factors such as national policies, social protection, standards of living, working conditions, and community support.
Stress, genetics, nutrition, perinatal infections and exposure to environmental hazards are also contributing factors to mental disorders.